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Article Title Abstract (Partial) Journal Year PMID SOM Author
►Rifabutin Suppresses Inducible Clarithromycin Resistance in Mycobacterium abscessus by Blocking Induction of whiB7 and erm41 Clarithromycin (CLR) is the corner stone in regimens for the treatment of lung disease caused by Mycobacterium abscessus (Mab). However, many strains harbor the CLR-inducible CLR resistance gene erm41, encoding a ribosome methylase. Induction of erm41 is mediated by the transcription factor whiB7. We hypothesized that an inhibitor of RNA synthesis should be able to block the whiB7-erm41 induction response to CLR exposure and thus suppress CLR resistance. Recently, we discovered that the rifampicin analog rifabutin (RFB) shows attractive potency against Mab. To determine whether RFB-CLR combinations are synergistic, a checkerboard analysis against a collection of erm41 positive and negative Mab strains was carried out. This revealed synergy Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 32050554 Dick, Thomas
►Pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections: current state and future management Currently, there is a trend of increasing incidence in pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections (PNTM) together with a decrease in tuberculosis (TB) incidence, particularly in developed countries. The prevalence of PNTM in underdeveloped and developing countries remains unclear as there is still a lack of detection methods that could clearly diagnose PNTM applicable in these low-resource settings. Since non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmental pathogens, the vicinity favouring host-pathogen interactions is known as important predisposing factor for PNTM. The ongoing changes in world population, as well as socio-political and economic factors, are linked to the rise in the incidence of PNTM. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 2019 31853742 Alvarez-Cabrera, Nadine
►Rifabutin: A Repurposing Candidate for Mycobacterium abscessus Lung Disease   Front Microbiol 2020 32174907 Dick, Thomas
►CloudASM: an ultra-efficient cloud-based pipeline for mapping allele-specific DNA methylation SUMMARY: Methods for quantifying the imbalance in CpG methylation between alleles genome-wide have been described but their algorithmic time complexity is quadratic and their practical use requires painstaking attention to infrastructure choice, implementation, and execution. To solve this problem, we developed CloudASM, a scalable, ultra-efficient, turn-key, portable pipeline on Google Cloud Computing (GCP) that uses a novel pipeline manager and GCP's serverless enterprise data warehouse. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: CloudASM is freely available in the GitHub repository https://github.com/TyckoLab/CloudASM and a sample dataset and its results are also freely available at https://console.cloud.google.com/storage/browser/cloudasm. Bioinformatics 2020 32119067 Tycko, Benjamin
►Pyrazinamide triggers degradation of its target aspartate decarboxylase Pyrazinamide is a sterilizing first-line tuberculosis drug. Genetic, metabolomic and biophysical analyses previously demonstrated that pyrazinoic acid, the bioactive form of the prodrug pyrazinamide (PZA), interrupts biosynthesis of coenzyme A in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by binding to aspartate decarboxylase PanD. While most drugs act by inhibiting protein function upon target binding, we find here that pyrazinoic acid is only a weak enzyme inhibitor. We show that binding of pyrazinoic acid to PanD triggers degradation of the protein by the caseinolytic protease ClpC1-ClpP. Nat Commun 2020 32245967 Gengenbacher, Martin; Dick, Thomas
►Penetration of Ibrexafungerp (formerly SCY-078) at the site of infection in an Intra-abdominal candidiasis mouse model Ibrexafungerp (IBX), formerly SCY-078, is a novel, oral and intravenous, semisynthetic triterpenoid glucan synthase inhibitor in clinical development for treating multiple fungal infections, including invasive candidiasis. Intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC) is one of the most common types of invasive candidiasis associated with high mortality largely due to poor drug exposure in infected lesions. To better understand the potential of IBX to treat such infections, we investigated its penetration at the site of infection. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) and laser capture microdissection (LCM) directed high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we i Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2019 31871074 Lee, Annie; Zimmerman, Matthew; Carter, Claire; Barat, Stephen; Dartois, Véronique; Perlin, David S.
Molecular and Clinical Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant and Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains from Liver Abscess in Taiwan Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae strains are the major cause of liver abscesses throughout East Asia, and these strains are usually antibiotic susceptible. Recently, multidrug-resistant and hypervirulent (MDR-HV) K. pneumoniae strains have emerged due to hypervirulent strains acquiring antimicrobial resistance determinants or the transfer of a virulence plasmid into a classic MDR strain. In this study, we characterized the clinical and microbiological properties of K. pneumoniae liver abscess (KPLA) caused by MDR-HV strains in Taiwan. Patients with community onset KPLA were retrospectively identified at Taipei Veterans General Hospital during January 2013 to May 2018. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2020 32152079 Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Chen, Liang
►Conscience Dissenters and Disagreement: Professions are Only as Good as Their Practitioners In this paper, I consider the role of conscience in medical practice. If the conscientious practice of individual practitioners cannot be defended or is incoherent or unreasonable on its own merits, then there is little reason to support conscience protection and to argue about its place in the current medical landscape. If this is the case, conscience protection should be abandoned. To the contrary, I argue that conscience protection should not be abandoned. My argument takes the form of an analysis of an essential feature of the conscience dissenter's argument, the role of disagreement within "the medical profession." HEC Forum 2020 32112192 Pilkington, Bryan C.
Caseum: a Niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug-Tolerant Persisters SUMMARYCaseum, the central necrotic material of tuberculous lesions, is a reservoir of drug-recalcitrant persisting mycobacteria. Caseum is found in closed nodules and in open cavities connecting with an airway. Several commonly accepted characteristics of caseum were established during the preantibiotic era, when autopsies of deceased tuberculosis (TB) patients were common but methodologies were limited. These pioneering studies generated concepts such as acidic pH, low oxygen tension, and paucity of nutrients being the drivers of nonreplication and persistence in caseum. Here we review widely accepted beliefs about the caseum-specific stress factors thought to trigger the shift of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to drug tolerance. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2020 32238365 Dartois, Véronique
TBAJ-876, a 3,5-dialkoxypyridine analogue of Bedaquiline, is active against Mycobacterium abscessus Lung disease caused by Mycobacterium abscessus is very difficult to cure and treatment failure rates are high. The anti-tuberculosis drug bedaquiline (BDQ) is used as salvage therapy against this dreadful disease. However, BDQ is highly lipophilic, displays long terminal half-life and presents a cardio-toxicity liability associated with QT interval prolongation. Recent medicinal chemistry campaigns resulted in the discovery of 3,5-dialkoxypyridine analogues of BDQ which are less lipophilic, have higher clearance and display lower cardio-toxic potential. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2020 31964791 Ganapathy, Uday S.; Zimmerman, Matthew D.; Dartois, Véronique; Gengenbacher, Martin; Dick, Thomas
►Re-Understanding the Mechanisms of Action of the Anti-Mycobacterial Drug Bedaquiline Bedaquiline (BDQ) inhibits ATP generation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by interfering with the F-ATP synthase activity. Two mechanisms of action of BDQ are broadly accepted. A direct mechanism involves BDQ binding to the enzyme's c-ring to block its rotation, thus inhibiting ATP synthesis in the enzyme's catalytic α3β3-headpiece. An indirect mechanism involves BDQ uncoupling electron transport in the electron transport chain from ATP synthesis at the F-ATP synthase. In a recently uncovered second direct mechanism, BDQ binds to the enzyme's ε-subunit to disrupt its ability to link c-ring rotation to ATP synthesis at the α3β3-headpiece. Antibiotics (Basel) 2019 31835707 Dick, Thomas
►Extreme Drug Tolerance of Mycobacterium abscessus "Persisters" Persistence of infection despite extensive chemotherapy with antibiotics displaying low MICs is a hallmark of lung disease caused by Mycobacterium abscessus (Mab). Thus, the classical MIC assay is a poor predictor of clinical outcome. Discovery of more efficacious antibiotics requires more predictive in vitro potency assays. As a mycobacterium, Mab is an obligate aerobe and a chemo-organo-heterotroph - it requires oxygen and organic carbon sources for growth. However, bacteria growing in patients can encounter micro-environmental conditions that are different from aerated nutrient-rich broth used to grow planktonic cultures for MIC assays. These in vivo conditions may include oxygen and nutrient limitation which should arrest growth. Front Microbiol 2020 32194537 Yam, Yee-Kuen; Dick, Thomas
Genetic and epigenetic pathways in Down syndrome: Insights to the brain and immune system from humans and mouse models The presence of an extra copy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) leads to a constellation of phenotypic manifestations in Down syndrome (DS), including prominent effects on the brain and immune system. Intensive efforts to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying these phenotypes may help developing effective therapies, both in DS and in the general population. Here we review recent progress in genetic and epigenetic analysis of trisomy 21 (Ts21). New mouse models of DS based on syntenic conservation of segments of the mouse and human chromosomes are starting to clarify the contributions of chromosomal subregions and orthologous genes to specific phenotypes in DS. Prog. Brain Res. 2020 32057305 Tycko, Benjamin
Implementation of Team-Based Learning: a Tale of Two New Medical Schools Team-based learning (TBL) is gaining popularity at medical schools transitioning from lecture-based to active learning curricula. Here, we review challenges and opportunities faced in implementing TBL at 2 new medical schools. We discuss the importance of using meaningful TBL grades as well as the role TBL plays in developing critical reasoning skills and in early identification of struggling students. We also discuss how the concurrent use of learning strategies with different incentive structures such as problem- and case-based learning could foster the development of well-rounded physicians. We hope this monograph helps and even inspires educators implementing TBL at their schools. Med Sci Educ 2019 Link Lopez, Osvaldo
A Four Month Randomized Controlled Trial on the Efficacy of Once-daily Fenofibrate Monotherapy in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury An open-label, randomized clinical trial of once-daily fenofibrate monotherapy administered for 2- (Mo2) and 4- (Mo4) months using modified intervention thresholds for triglyceride (TG) was performed in persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Fenofibrate (145 mg tablet) was self-administered daily in 10 persons with SCI for 4 months with monthly blood testing to quantify the lipoprotein profile (e.g., serum TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C concentrations). Eight SCI participants were control subjects. In comparison to the control group, the treatment group at Mo2 had a 40% (±12%; p < 0.05) reduction in serum TG concentration, a 28% (±21%; p < 0.05) increase in HDL-C and 14% (±20%; p < 0.05) decline in LDL-C. Sci Rep 2019 31748594 La Fountaine, Michael F.
Reconstructing the Neanderthal Eustachian Tube: New Insights on Disease Susceptibility, Fitness Cost, and Extinction Neanderthals are among the best studied and yet most enigmatic fossil human groups with aspects of their anatomy and functional morphology remaining poorly understood. We present the first anatomical reconstruction of the Neanderthal cartilaginous Eustachian tube (CET), a vital component of the upper respiratory tract and nexus for the middle ear and postnasal airway. The Eustachian (auditory, pharyngotympanic) tube, comprised of a bony and cartilaginous (CET) portion, is integral to normal phys Anatomical Record 2019 31472033 Pagano, Anthony Santino
The Cdk2-c-Myc-miR-571 Axis Regulates DNA Replication and Genomic Stability by Targeting Geminin DNA re-replication leads to genomic instability and has been implicated in the pathology of a variety of human cancers. Eukaryotic DNA replication is tightly controlled to ensure it occurs only once during each cell cycle. Geminin is a critical component of this control, it prevents DNA re-replication from occurring during S, G2 and early M phases by preventing MCM helicases from forming pre-replication complexes. Geminin is targeted for degradation by the anaphase promoting complex (APC/C) from Cancer Research 2019 31431461 Han, Zhiyong
Sex differences in the associations of placental epigenetic aging with fetal growth Identifying factors that influence fetal growth in a sex-specific manner can help unravel mechanisms that explain sex differences in adverse neonatal outcomes and in-utero origins of cardiovascular disease disparities. Premature aging of the placenta, a tissue that supports fetal growth and exhibits sex-specific epigenetic changes, is associated with pregnancy complications. Using DNA methylation-based age estimator, we investigated the sex-specific relationship of placental epigenetic aging wit Aging 2019 31395791 Tycko, Benjamin
Distinct epigenetic profiles in children with perinatally-acquired HIV on antiretroviral therapy Perinatally-acquired HIV has persistent effects on long-term health outcomes, even after early treatment. We hypothesize that epigenetic indicators, such as DNA methylation, may elucidate cellular processes that explain these effects. Here, we compared DNA methylation profiles in whole blood from 120 HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 60 frequency age-matched HIV-uninfected children aged 4-9 years in Johannesburg, South Africa. Using an individual CpG site approach, we fou Scientific Reports 2019 31324826 Tycko, Benjamin
Competencies for improving diagnosis: an interprofessional framework for education and training in health care Background Given an unacceptably high incidence of diagnostic errors, we sought to identify the key competencies that should be considered for inclusion in health professions education programs to improve the quality and safety of diagnosis in clinical practice. Methods An interprofessional group reviewed existing competency expectations for multiple health professions, and conducted a search that explored quality, safety, and competency in diagnosis. An iterative series of group discussions and Diagnosis 2019 31271549 Giuliano, Michael A.
Inhibition of NF-κB-Dependent Signaling Enhances Sensitivity and Overcomes Resistance to BET Inhibition in Uveal Melanoma Bromodomain and extraterminal protein inhibitors (BETi) are epigenetic therapies aimed to target dysregulated gene expression in cancer cells. Despite early successes of BETi in a range of malignancies, the development of drug resistance may limit their clinical application. Here, we evaluated the mechanisms of BETi resistance in uveal melanoma, a disease with little treatment options, using two approaches: a high-throughput combinatorial drug screen with the clinical BET inhibitor PLX51107 and Cancer Research 2019 30885979 Tycko, Benjamin
Participation in Active Learning Correlates to Higher Female Performance in a Pipeline Course for Underrepresented Students in Medicine This study was designed to explore the relationship between participation (measured by percentage of time spoken) in team-based learning (TBL) exercises and final examination in a 4-week medical microbiology course for college students from backgrounds underrepresented in medicine (URM). A significant correlation was found between participation and examination scores in lower performing students. Although male participation was higher, a significant correlation between participation and examinat Medical Science Educator 2019 Link Lopez, Osvaldo J.
Preliminary Evidence for a Window of Increased Vulnerability to Sustain a Concussion in Females: A Brief Report A difference exists between sexes for the incidence of concussion injuries and severity of post-injury outcomes with females having a higher incidence rate (in comparable sports) and experience more robust symptoms than males. The basis for this disparity has remained largely unresolved. Recent findings point to a potential biological mechanism that may be related to the menstrual cycle as an arbiter of post-injury outcomes. What has not been addressed, is whether the phase of menstrual cycle (i Frontiers in Neurology 2019 31338057 La Fountaine, Michael F.
Inhibition of NF-kappaB-Dependent Signaling Enhances Sensitivity and Overcomes Resistance to BET Inhibition in Uveal Melanoma. Bromodomain and extraterminal protein inhibitors (BETi) are epigenetic therapies aimed to target dysregulated gene expression in cancer cells. Despite early successes of BETi in a range of malignancies, the development of drug resistance may limit their clinical application. Here, we evaluated the mechanisms of BETi resistance in uveal melanoma, a disease with little treatment options, using two approaches: a high-throughput combinatorial drug screen with the clinical BET inhibitor PLX51107 and RNA sequencing of BETi-resistant cells. NF-kappaB inhibitors synergistically sensitized uveal melanoma cells to PLX51107 treatment. Furthermore, genes involved in NF-kappaB signaling were upregulated in BETi-resistant cells, and the transcription factor CEBPD contributed to the mechanism of resistance. These findings suggest that inhibitors of NF-kappaB signaling may improve the efficacy of BET inhibition in patients with advanced uveal melanoma. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings provide evidence that inhibitors of Cancer research 2019 30885979 Tycko, Benjamin
Blockade of the OGF-OGFr pathway in diabetic bone. PURPOSE: This research investigated the presence and integrity of the opioid growth factor (OGF)-opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) regulatory pathway in type 1 diabetic (T1D) rats, and investigated whether modulation of this axis by naltrexone (NTX) altered the composition of normal bone or fractured femurs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin; controls rats received buffer. Hyperglycemic animals were subjected to femur osteotomy, with randomized cohorts receiving either topical NTX or sterile saline in calcium carbonate. In experiment 2, hyperglycemic rats were injected daily for 3 weeks with either 30 mg/kg NTX or sterile saline. Expression levels of OGF and OGFr were measured by immunohistochemistry, bone composition was assessed by histomorphometry, and bone integrity was evaluated by microCT and 3-point bending. Connective tissue research 2019 30931654 Titunick, Michelle B.
Fenofibrate therapy to lower serum triglyceride concentrations in persons with spinal cord injury: A preliminary analysis of its safety profile. CONTEXT: Fenofibrate is used to treat elevated serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations (e.g. >/=150 mg/dl). The lipoprotein profile of most individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) would not satisfy conventional criteria to initiate lipid-lowering therapies. Serum TG concentrations of 115 and 137 mg/dl were recently identified as potential intervention thresholds for persons with a SCI proximal to the 4th and below the 5th thoracic vertebrae, respectively. Fenofibrate therapy has not been tested for safety in persons with SCI. METHODS: An open-label trial was performed in 15 persons with SCI to determine the safety profile of 4 months of once-daily fenofibrate (145 mg tablet) treatment when initiated using modified intervention thresholds. Fasting blood tests and a review of systems were performed monthly to determine changes in liver and kidney function, as well as overall health status. The journal of spinal cord medicine 2019 30870136 La Fountaine, Michael F.
First year medical student performance on weekly team-based learning exercises in an infectious diseases course: insights from top performers and struggling students BACKGROUND: In Team-Based Learning (TBL) preparation of relevant coursework during self-directed learning time is evaluated by the individual readiness assurance test (iRAT). We recently reported that student performance on iRATs is strongly correlated with final examination scores in an infectious diseases (ID) course. We now investigated how student preparation for each individual iRAT exercise relates to course performance. METHODS: Two-hundred and sixty medical students were enrolled in this three-year study. Student TBL iRAT scores were collected and correlated with final examination scores using Kruskal-Wallis One-Way ANOVA and Newman-Keul's statistical methods. RESULTS: Students performing in the upper and middle 33rd percentile on the final examination showed highly significant (p < 0.01) weekly improvements in their iRAT scores. However, students performing in the lower 33rd percentile did not show improvement in their iRAT scores until the last week of the course. Although there was a highly significant correlation between final examination and iRAT scores amongst all students participating in the study, this correlation was stronger in students performing in the lower 33rd percentile. BMC medical education 2019 31159880 Lopez, Osvaldo
Effects of taurine acute intake on cortical excitability and post-exercise facilitation: A TMS study Taurine (TAU) is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain. It has many important physiological functions. The effects of TAU supplementation on brain function need to be further characterized in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a single dose of Taurine (TAU) intake would modulate corticospinal excitability and post-exercise facilitation (PEF) of the motor evoked potentials (MEP). Behavioural Brain Research 2019 30248365

Thomas, Florian P. (Neurology);

Han, Zhiyong;

Battaglia, Fortunato (Neurology)

Twelve tips for developing and implementing curriculum in dedicated 'collaborative classrooms' Many health professional schools may be investing time and resources on dedicated educational spaces intended to promote collaborative learning. Alone, innovative physical space or technologies are not sufficient to ensure success in this. Lesson plans informed by collaborative praxis, individual motivation, faculty development, learner feedback, and team interactions also play a necessary and substantial role. We have used faculty observations, quantitative and qualitative student evaluation data, and the existing educational literature to provide twelve tips on leveraging curricular content, activity setup, physical space, learner behavior, and faculty facilitation to make the most of collaborative learning spaces. Medical Teacher 2019 30661425 Payne, Anthony M.
DHS (trans-4,4'-dihydroxystilbene) suppresses DNA replication and tumor growth by inhibiting RRM2 (ribonucleotide reductase regulatory subunit M2) DNA replication machinery is responsible for accurate and efficient duplication of the chromosome. Since inhibition of DNA replication can lead to replication fork stalling, resulting in DNA damage and apoptotic death, inhibitors of DNA replication are commonly used in cancer chemotherapy. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) that are essential for DNA replication and DNA damage repair. Gemcitabine, a nucleotide analog that inhibits RNR, has been used to treat various cancers. However, patients often develop resistance to this drug during treatment. Thus, new drugs that inhibit RNR are needed to be developed. In this study, we identified a synthetic analo Oncogene 2018 30518875 Han, Zhiyong
Establishing a threshold to predict risk of cardiovascular disease from the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein concentrations in persons with spinal cord injury STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. OBJECTIVE: This report identified the serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and able-bodied (AB) individuals that the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) equaled 40 mg/dl, a concentration below which is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed on 578 participants: 223 with SCI at or proximal to the 4th thoracic vertebrae (↑T4), 178 with SCI at or distal to the 5th thoracic vertebrae (↓T5), and 177 AB. Different statistical modeling approaches identified the intersecting serum TG concentration with a serum HDL-C concentration equal to 40 mg/dl. Participants were dichotomized into subgroups Spinal Cord 2018 30089895 La Fountaine, Michael F.
A call to reevaluate cardiac autonomic assessment after spinal cord injury This "Perspectives" article puts forward the notion that measuring heart rate variability, or other forms of cardiac autonomic regulation, after spinal cord injury must be performed during a test of autonomic stress. Resting values of heart rate variability are often similar to those obtained from able-bodied individuals, which may therefore be falsely interpreted as normal or healthy autonomic regulation. However, evidence shows that despite normal resting values, cardiac autonomic control is impaired when individual with spinal cord injury are subjected to a cold face test, head-up tilt, or recovery from exercise. Accordingly, examination of cardiac autonomic function must be performed during an autonomic challenge, as resting measures do American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2018 30141980 La Fountaine, Michael F.
Response to Letter to the Editor: Establishing a threshold to predict risk of cardiovascular disease from the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein concentrations in persons with spinal cord injury NA Spinal Cord 2018 30258213 La Fountaine, Michael F.
Attenuation of Spontaneous Baroreceptor Sensitivity following Concussion INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular autonomic nervous system (CV-ANS) function is negatively impacted after concussion. The arterial baroreflex buffers pressor and depressor challenges through efferent modulation of cardiac chrono- and inotropism, and peripheral vascular tone. Baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) reflects the capacity of the CV-ANS to accommodate dynamic metabolic demands in the periphery. The impact of concussion on BRS has yet to be defined. METHODS: CV-ANS assessment (e.g., electrocardiogram and beat-to-beat SBP) was performed the seated upright position at rest within 48 hours (V1) of concussion and 1 week later (V2) in 10 intercollegiate male athletes with concussion and 10 non-injured male athletes. Changes in heart rate (HR), SBP Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2018 30407273 La Fountaine, Michael F.
Evaluation of the role of incentive structure on student participation and performance in active learning strategies: A comparison of case-based and team-based learning BACKGROUND: Student participation is important for the success of active learning strategies, but participation is often linked to the level of preparation. At our institution, we use two types of active learning activities, a modified case-based learning exercise called active learning groups (ALG) and team-based learning (TBL). These strategies have different assessment and incentive structures for participation. Non-cognitive skills are assessed in ALG using a subjective five-point Likert scale. In TBL, assessment of individual student preparation is based on a multiple choice quiz conducted at the beginning of each session. METHODS: We studied first-year medical student participation and performance in ALG and TBL as well as performance Medical Teacher 2018 29205068 Lopez, Osvaldo J.
A Novel Grading Strategy for Team-Based Learning Exercises in a Hands-on Course in Molecular Biology for Senior Undergraduate Underrepresented Students in Medicine Resulted in Stronger Student Performance We developed a hands-on course in molecular biology for undergraduate underrepresented in medicine (URM) students. To incentivize student preparation for team-based learning (TBL) activities, we implemented a novel grading schema that requires a minimum individual readiness assurance test (iRAT) score to share the team group readiness assurance test (gRAT) score. Fifty-one students participated in this 2-year study and were divided in teams of five or six students that worked throughout the course on a unique, hands-on project and also participated in TBL exercises. In the laboratory sessions, students isolated RNA from cultured neuronal cells, synthesized complementary DNA (cDNA), and used gene sequencing to identify a gene relevant in hum Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education 2018 30589488 Lopez, Osvaldo J.
The Nasal Complex of a Semiaquatic Artiodactyl, the Moose (Alces alces): Is it a Good Evolutionary Model for the Ancestors of Cetaceans? Among Cetartiodactyla, cetaceans are the only obligate aquatic dwellers. Given morphological similarities between cetacean relatives such as Indohyus (the best represented Eocene raoellid artiodactyl) with other, later artiodactyls, any crown artiodactyl that engages in aquatic behaviors is of interest as an evolutionary model for the adaptations that accompanied the origins of cetaceans. The American moose (Alces alces) is the only non-cetacean artiodactyl to engage in aquatic foraging and, other than Hippopotamus, is distinctive in its diving behaviors. This study surveyed the soft and hard tissue nasal morphology of Alces alces to assess phylogenetic polarity and the presence of adaptations for diving and feeding in fresh water habitats. Anatomical Record 2018 30422388 Pagano, Anthony S.

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