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Article Title Abstract (Partial) Journal Year PMID SOM Author
Implementation of Team-Based Learning: a Tale of Two New Medical Schools Team-based learning (TBL) is gaining popularity at medical schools transitioning from lecture-based to active learning curricula. Here, we review challenges and opportunities faced in implementing TBL at 2 new medical schools. We discuss the importance of using meaningful TBL grades as well as the role TBL plays in developing critical reasoning skills and in early identification of struggling students. We also discuss how the concurrent use of learning strategies with different incentive structures such as problem- and case-based learning could foster the development of well-rounded physicians. We hope this monograph helps and even inspires educators implementing TBL at their schools. Med Sci Educ 2019 Link Lopez, Osvaldo
A Four Month Randomized Controlled Trial on the Efficacy of Once-daily Fenofibrate Monotherapy in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury An open-label, randomized clinical trial of once-daily fenofibrate monotherapy administered for 2- (Mo2) and 4- (Mo4) months using modified intervention thresholds for triglyceride (TG) was performed in persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Fenofibrate (145 mg tablet) was self-administered daily in 10 persons with SCI for 4 months with monthly blood testing to quantify the lipoprotein profile (e.g., serum TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C concentrations). Eight SCI participants were control subjects. In comparison to the control group, the treatment group at Mo2 had a 40% (±12%; p < 0.05) reduction in serum TG concentration, a 28% (±21%; p < 0.05) increase in HDL-C and 14% (±20%; p < 0.05) decline in LDL-C. Sci Rep 2019 31748594 La Fountaine, Michael F.
Reconstructing the Neanderthal Eustachian Tube: New Insights on Disease Susceptibility, Fitness Cost, and Extinction Neanderthals are among the best studied and yet most enigmatic fossil human groups with aspects of their anatomy and functional morphology remaining poorly understood. We present the first anatomical reconstruction of the Neanderthal cartilaginous Eustachian tube (CET), a vital component of the upper respiratory tract and nexus for the middle ear and postnasal airway. The Eustachian (auditory, pharyngotympanic) tube, comprised of a bony and cartilaginous (CET) portion, is integral to normal phys Anatomical Record 2019 31472033 Pagano, Anthony Santino
The Cdk2-c-Myc-miR-571 Axis Regulates DNA Replication and Genomic Stability by Targeting Geminin DNA re-replication leads to genomic instability and has been implicated in the pathology of a variety of human cancers. Eukaryotic DNA replication is tightly controlled to ensure it occurs only once during each cell cycle. Geminin is a critical component of this control, it prevents DNA re-replication from occurring during S, G2 and early M phases by preventing MCM helicases from forming pre-replication complexes. Geminin is targeted for degradation by the anaphase promoting complex (APC/C) from Cancer Research 2019 31431461 Han, Zhiyong
Sex differences in the associations of placental epigenetic aging with fetal growth Identifying factors that influence fetal growth in a sex-specific manner can help unravel mechanisms that explain sex differences in adverse neonatal outcomes and in-utero origins of cardiovascular disease disparities. Premature aging of the placenta, a tissue that supports fetal growth and exhibits sex-specific epigenetic changes, is associated with pregnancy complications. Using DNA methylation-based age estimator, we investigated the sex-specific relationship of placental epigenetic aging wit Aging 2019 31395791 Tycko, Benjamin
Distinct epigenetic profiles in children with perinatally-acquired HIV on antiretroviral therapy Perinatally-acquired HIV has persistent effects on long-term health outcomes, even after early treatment. We hypothesize that epigenetic indicators, such as DNA methylation, may elucidate cellular processes that explain these effects. Here, we compared DNA methylation profiles in whole blood from 120 HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 60 frequency age-matched HIV-uninfected children aged 4-9 years in Johannesburg, South Africa. Using an individual CpG site approach, we fou Scientific Reports 2019 31324826 Tycko, Benjamin
Competencies for improving diagnosis: an interprofessional framework for education and training in health care Background Given an unacceptably high incidence of diagnostic errors, we sought to identify the key competencies that should be considered for inclusion in health professions education programs to improve the quality and safety of diagnosis in clinical practice. Methods An interprofessional group reviewed existing competency expectations for multiple health professions, and conducted a search that explored quality, safety, and competency in diagnosis. An iterative series of group discussions and Diagnosis 2019 31271549 Giuliano, Michael A.
Inhibition of NF-κB-Dependent Signaling Enhances Sensitivity and Overcomes Resistance to BET Inhibition in Uveal Melanoma Bromodomain and extraterminal protein inhibitors (BETi) are epigenetic therapies aimed to target dysregulated gene expression in cancer cells. Despite early successes of BETi in a range of malignancies, the development of drug resistance may limit their clinical application. Here, we evaluated the mechanisms of BETi resistance in uveal melanoma, a disease with little treatment options, using two approaches: a high-throughput combinatorial drug screen with the clinical BET inhibitor PLX51107 and Cancer Research 2019 30885979 Tycko, Benjamin
Participation in Active Learning Correlates to Higher Female Performance in a Pipeline Course for Underrepresented Students in Medicine This study was designed to explore the relationship between participation (measured by percentage of time spoken) in team-based learning (TBL) exercises and final examination in a 4-week medical microbiology course for college students from backgrounds underrepresented in medicine (URM). A significant correlation was found between participation and examination scores in lower performing students. Although male participation was higher, a significant correlation between participation and examinat Medical Science Educator 2019 Link Lopez, Osvaldo J.
Preliminary Evidence for a Window of Increased Vulnerability to Sustain a Concussion in Females: A Brief Report A difference exists between sexes for the incidence of concussion injuries and severity of post-injury outcomes with females having a higher incidence rate (in comparable sports) and experience more robust symptoms than males. The basis for this disparity has remained largely unresolved. Recent findings point to a potential biological mechanism that may be related to the menstrual cycle as an arbiter of post-injury outcomes. What has not been addressed, is whether the phase of menstrual cycle (i Frontiers in Neurology 2019 31338057 La Fountaine, Michael F.
Inhibition of NF-kappaB-Dependent Signaling Enhances Sensitivity and Overcomes Resistance to BET Inhibition in Uveal Melanoma. Bromodomain and extraterminal protein inhibitors (BETi) are epigenetic therapies aimed to target dysregulated gene expression in cancer cells. Despite early successes of BETi in a range of malignancies, the development of drug resistance may limit their clinical application. Here, we evaluated the mechanisms of BETi resistance in uveal melanoma, a disease with little treatment options, using two approaches: a high-throughput combinatorial drug screen with the clinical BET inhibitor PLX51107 and RNA sequencing of BETi-resistant cells. NF-kappaB inhibitors synergistically sensitized uveal melanoma cells to PLX51107 treatment. Furthermore, genes involved in NF-kappaB signaling were upregulated in BETi-resistant cells, and the transcription factor CEBPD contributed to the mechanism of resistance. These findings suggest that inhibitors of NF-kappaB signaling may improve the efficacy of BET inhibition in patients with advanced uveal melanoma. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings provide evidence that inhibitors of Cancer research 2019 30885979 Tycko, Benjamin
Blockade of the OGF-OGFr pathway in diabetic bone. PURPOSE: This research investigated the presence and integrity of the opioid growth factor (OGF)-opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) regulatory pathway in type 1 diabetic (T1D) rats, and investigated whether modulation of this axis by naltrexone (NTX) altered the composition of normal bone or fractured femurs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin; controls rats received buffer. Hyperglycemic animals were subjected to femur osteotomy, with randomized cohorts receiving either topical NTX or sterile saline in calcium carbonate. In experiment 2, hyperglycemic rats were injected daily for 3 weeks with either 30 mg/kg NTX or sterile saline. Expression levels of OGF and OGFr were measured by immunohistochemistry, bone composition was assessed by histomorphometry, and bone integrity was evaluated by microCT and 3-point bending. Connective tissue research 2019 30931654 Titunick, Michelle B.
Fenofibrate therapy to lower serum triglyceride concentrations in persons with spinal cord injury: A preliminary analysis of its safety profile. CONTEXT: Fenofibrate is used to treat elevated serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations (e.g. >/=150 mg/dl). The lipoprotein profile of most individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) would not satisfy conventional criteria to initiate lipid-lowering therapies. Serum TG concentrations of 115 and 137 mg/dl were recently identified as potential intervention thresholds for persons with a SCI proximal to the 4th and below the 5th thoracic vertebrae, respectively. Fenofibrate therapy has not been tested for safety in persons with SCI. METHODS: An open-label trial was performed in 15 persons with SCI to determine the safety profile of 4 months of once-daily fenofibrate (145 mg tablet) treatment when initiated using modified intervention thresholds. Fasting blood tests and a review of systems were performed monthly to determine changes in liver and kidney function, as well as overall health status. The journal of spinal cord medicine 2019 30870136 La Fountaine, Michael F.
First year medical student performance on weekly team-based learning exercises in an infectious diseases course: insights from top performers and struggling students BACKGROUND: In Team-Based Learning (TBL) preparation of relevant coursework during self-directed learning time is evaluated by the individual readiness assurance test (iRAT). We recently reported that student performance on iRATs is strongly correlated with final examination scores in an infectious diseases (ID) course. We now investigated how student preparation for each individual iRAT exercise relates to course performance. METHODS: Two-hundred and sixty medical students were enrolled in this three-year study. Student TBL iRAT scores were collected and correlated with final examination scores using Kruskal-Wallis One-Way ANOVA and Newman-Keul's statistical methods. RESULTS: Students performing in the upper and middle 33rd percentile on the final examination showed highly significant (p < 0.01) weekly improvements in their iRAT scores. However, students performing in the lower 33rd percentile did not show improvement in their iRAT scores until the last week of the course. Although there was a highly significant correlation between final examination and iRAT scores amongst all students participating in the study, this correlation was stronger in students performing in the lower 33rd percentile. BMC medical education 2019 31159880 Lopez, Osvaldo
Effects of taurine acute intake on cortical excitability and post-exercise facilitation: A TMS study Taurine (TAU) is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain. It has many important physiological functions. The effects of TAU supplementation on brain function need to be further characterized in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a single dose of Taurine (TAU) intake would modulate corticospinal excitability and post-exercise facilitation (PEF) of the motor evoked potentials (MEP). Behavioural Brain Research 2019 30248365

Thomas, Florian P. (Neurology);

Han, Zhiyong;

Battaglia, Fortunato (Neurology)

Twelve tips for developing and implementing curriculum in dedicated 'collaborative classrooms' Many health professional schools may be investing time and resources on dedicated educational spaces intended to promote collaborative learning. Alone, innovative physical space or technologies are not sufficient to ensure success in this. Lesson plans informed by collaborative praxis, individual motivation, faculty development, learner feedback, and team interactions also play a necessary and substantial role. We have used faculty observations, quantitative and qualitative student evaluation data, and the existing educational literature to provide twelve tips on leveraging curricular content, activity setup, physical space, learner behavior, and faculty facilitation to make the most of collaborative learning spaces. Medical Teacher 2019 30661425 Payne, Anthony M.
DHS (trans-4,4'-dihydroxystilbene) suppresses DNA replication and tumor growth by inhibiting RRM2 (ribonucleotide reductase regulatory subunit M2) DNA replication machinery is responsible for accurate and efficient duplication of the chromosome. Since inhibition of DNA replication can lead to replication fork stalling, resulting in DNA damage and apoptotic death, inhibitors of DNA replication are commonly used in cancer chemotherapy. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) that are essential for DNA replication and DNA damage repair. Gemcitabine, a nucleotide analog that inhibits RNR, has been used to treat various cancers. However, patients often develop resistance to this drug during treatment. Thus, new drugs that inhibit RNR are needed to be developed. In this study, we identified a synthetic analo Oncogene 2018 30518875 Han, Zhiyong
Establishing a threshold to predict risk of cardiovascular disease from the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein concentrations in persons with spinal cord injury STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. OBJECTIVE: This report identified the serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and able-bodied (AB) individuals that the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) equaled 40 mg/dl, a concentration below which is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed on 578 participants: 223 with SCI at or proximal to the 4th thoracic vertebrae (↑T4), 178 with SCI at or distal to the 5th thoracic vertebrae (↓T5), and 177 AB. Different statistical modeling approaches identified the intersecting serum TG concentration with a serum HDL-C concentration equal to 40 mg/dl. Participants were dichotomized into subgroups Spinal Cord 2018 30089895 La Fountaine, Michael F.
A call to reevaluate cardiac autonomic assessment after spinal cord injury This "Perspectives" article puts forward the notion that measuring heart rate variability, or other forms of cardiac autonomic regulation, after spinal cord injury must be performed during a test of autonomic stress. Resting values of heart rate variability are often similar to those obtained from able-bodied individuals, which may therefore be falsely interpreted as normal or healthy autonomic regulation. However, evidence shows that despite normal resting values, cardiac autonomic control is impaired when individual with spinal cord injury are subjected to a cold face test, head-up tilt, or recovery from exercise. Accordingly, examination of cardiac autonomic function must be performed during an autonomic challenge, as resting measures do American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2018 30141980 La Fountaine, Michael F.
Response to Letter to the Editor: Establishing a threshold to predict risk of cardiovascular disease from the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein concentrations in persons with spinal cord injury NA Spinal Cord 2018 30258213 La Fountaine, Michael F.
Attenuation of Spontaneous Baroreceptor Sensitivity following Concussion INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular autonomic nervous system (CV-ANS) function is negatively impacted after concussion. The arterial baroreflex buffers pressor and depressor challenges through efferent modulation of cardiac chrono- and inotropism, and peripheral vascular tone. Baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) reflects the capacity of the CV-ANS to accommodate dynamic metabolic demands in the periphery. The impact of concussion on BRS has yet to be defined. METHODS: CV-ANS assessment (e.g., electrocardiogram and beat-to-beat SBP) was performed the seated upright position at rest within 48 hours (V1) of concussion and 1 week later (V2) in 10 intercollegiate male athletes with concussion and 10 non-injured male athletes. Changes in heart rate (HR), SBP Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2018 30407273 La Fountaine, Michael F.
Evaluation of the role of incentive structure on student participation and performance in active learning strategies: A comparison of case-based and team-based learning BACKGROUND: Student participation is important for the success of active learning strategies, but participation is often linked to the level of preparation. At our institution, we use two types of active learning activities, a modified case-based learning exercise called active learning groups (ALG) and team-based learning (TBL). These strategies have different assessment and incentive structures for participation. Non-cognitive skills are assessed in ALG using a subjective five-point Likert scale. In TBL, assessment of individual student preparation is based on a multiple choice quiz conducted at the beginning of each session. METHODS: We studied first-year medical student participation and performance in ALG and TBL as well as performance Medical Teacher 2018 29205068 Lopez, Osvaldo J.
A Novel Grading Strategy for Team-Based Learning Exercises in a Hands-on Course in Molecular Biology for Senior Undergraduate Underrepresented Students in Medicine Resulted in Stronger Student Performance We developed a hands-on course in molecular biology for undergraduate underrepresented in medicine (URM) students. To incentivize student preparation for team-based learning (TBL) activities, we implemented a novel grading schema that requires a minimum individual readiness assurance test (iRAT) score to share the team group readiness assurance test (gRAT) score. Fifty-one students participated in this 2-year study and were divided in teams of five or six students that worked throughout the course on a unique, hands-on project and also participated in TBL exercises. In the laboratory sessions, students isolated RNA from cultured neuronal cells, synthesized complementary DNA (cDNA), and used gene sequencing to identify a gene relevant in hum Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education 2018 30589488 Lopez, Osvaldo J.
The Nasal Complex of a Semiaquatic Artiodactyl, the Moose (Alces alces): Is it a Good Evolutionary Model for the Ancestors of Cetaceans? Among Cetartiodactyla, cetaceans are the only obligate aquatic dwellers. Given morphological similarities between cetacean relatives such as Indohyus (the best represented Eocene raoellid artiodactyl) with other, later artiodactyls, any crown artiodactyl that engages in aquatic behaviors is of interest as an evolutionary model for the adaptations that accompanied the origins of cetaceans. The American moose (Alces alces) is the only non-cetacean artiodactyl to engage in aquatic foraging and, other than Hippopotamus, is distinctive in its diving behaviors. This study surveyed the soft and hard tissue nasal morphology of Alces alces to assess phylogenetic polarity and the presence of adaptations for diving and feeding in fresh water habitats. Anatomical Record 2018 30422388 Pagano, Anthony S.

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